Friday, November 19, 2010

tattoo flowe

Sunday, November 7, 2010

Corporate Social Responsibility or CSR in Today’s Context for MB0036 MBA Assignment

It is the solved SMU MBA MB0036 assignment question of – “In today’s context, would you consider Corporate Social Responsibility as a cost adding activity and not the duty of Companies or as an essential role with advantages to the firm?” It is the series of Intellectual Property Rights and effects of IP rights and Credit Card system and advantage to each participant in the system.

The potential of CSR policies to strengthen the symbiotic relationship between enterprises and society has already been demonstrated in areas such as sustainable growth, education and social cohesion. CSR can support the creation of an atmosphere of trust within companies, which leads to a stronger commitment of employees and higher innovation performance. A similar atmosphere of trust in co-operation among other stakeholders can increase the external innovation performance.

Consumer confidence fostered through CSR can be a major contributor to economic growth. More specifically, through CSR practices, enterprises can play an important role in preventing and combating corruption and bribery, and in helping preventing the use of enterprises for money laundering and criminal activities financing.

CSR policies can also boost the societal benefit that enterprises create with regard to innovation. Innovation practices aiming at better jobs, safer and employee-friendly workplaces, gender mainstreaming and the innovation or technology transfer to local communities and developing countries, leading to a more equitable North-South economic and social development, are further examples of societal benefits created by innovative enterprises. Indeed, CSR may play a positive role in fostering development in third countries by helping to establish a dialogue between these countries, their public authorities, social partners and civil society and foreign companies.

Awareness of Corporate Social Responsibility issues and concerns will contribute to promote more sustainable investments, more effective development co-operation and technology transfers.

The desire of enterprises to improve their risk management is a powerful factor behind CSR. Enterprises generally agree that Corporate Social Responsibility helps them in managing their risks, their intangible assets, their internal process and their relations with internal and external stakeholders. Justify Full

Intellectual Property Rights and Effects of IP Rights of Encouraging Investment in Research for MBA MB0036 Assignment

It is the solved assignment of MBA MB0036 question – “Intellectual Property Rights have increased prices. Intellectual Property Rights have the effect of encouraging investment in research, resulting in new products and in reducing costs. Discuss these two apparently contradictory statements.” It is the series of Sikkim Manipal University MBA assignment of MB0036 for Strategic Management & Business Policy - Credit Card system and advantage to each participant in the system and decision support system and example of critical reporting.

There are many patents that have never been successfully transformed into new products in the marketplace – what goes wrong in these cases? In some cases, it’s because the technology was not practically feasible, or was superseded by newer technologies. In other cases, the inventor lacked the resources or skills to take the invention to the next step.

One constant factor in the development of new technologies has been the cost and difficulty of the process of putting new technologies on the market. The technical merit or scientific brilliance of an invention is only one aspect of actually bringing a new technology to the public in a useful practical form.

Intellectual property protection needs to be properly managed so that it facilitates this process, and doesn’t itself become a burden.

The problems of getting worthwhile benefits from the patent system – even for the patent owner – are not new ones, as the quotation from 120 years ago makes clear: Patenting was unnecessarily and unwisely expensive, and the poor patentee was left almost without any aid or guidance. Intellectual property rights recognize innovative and creative activities, and are intended to reward useful and valuable contribution to society.

A patent can be expensive to obtain, especially if it is applied for in many countries, and costs money to keep in force, as annual renewal fees are required in many countries. In addition, patents can be very expensive to enforce if it becomes necessary to go to court to prevent infringement. Patents recognize inventiveness, but they are neutral on the commercial value of the invention. Many patented inventions will prove to be technologically unsuccessful, or commercially unviable.

In short, obtaining registered intellectual property rights or IP rights can be expensive, and do not in themselves make you any returns for your investment. Patents can be costly liabilities to you, your business or your research institute, unless you can find a way to apply your invention commercially or can get other forms of financial support.

Credit Card System and Advantage to Each Participant in the System for MB0036 Assignment

The assignment question is – “Trace the sequence of operations involved in a credit card system. What is the advantage to each participant in the system?” It is the SMU MBA MB0036 assignment in the sequence of decision support system and example of critical reporting and KRA of CFO.

A technical reason could be the wrong or no signature, wrong or no date, important details missing in the sales vouchers and so on. Despite the warnings carried on many a sales voucher both refunds and cancellations are daily occurrences.

To be considered a chargeback, the card issuer must initiate a well-defined dispute procedure. This it can do only after it has determined the reasons invalidating the transaction. A chargeback can only be initiated by the issuing financial institution. The cardholder himself has no standing in this matter and the chargeback rules and regulations are not accessible to him. He is confined to lodging a complaint with the issuer.

This is an abnormal situation whereby rules affecting the balances and mandating operations resulting in debits and credits in the bank account are not available to the account name.

The credit card company sends the transaction to the issuing bank and automatically debits the issuer.

The issuing bank debits the cardholder’s account. It issues monthly or transaction related statements to the cardholder.

Some credit card companies in some territories prefer to work directly with the cardholders. In such a case, they issue a monthly statement, which the cardholder has to pay directly to them by money order or by bank transfer. The cardholder will required providing a security to the credit card company and his spending limits will be tightly related to the level and quality of the security provided by him. The very issuance of the card is almost always subject to credit history and to an approval process.

The credit card company sends the transactions to the issuing bank and automatically debits it.

The issuing bank automatically debits the cardholder’s account. It issues monthly or transaction related statements to the cardholder.

Saturday, November 6, 2010

Decision Support System and Example of Critical Reporting for SMU MB0036 Assignment

It is the solved assignment of – “What is a Decision Support System? Name one example of critical Reporting for each of the Production, Marketing and Finance departments of the Company.” You can see some other solved assignments of SMU MB0036 (Strategic Management & Business Policy) such as – KRA of CFO and List and explain the objectives of a Bankruptcy Law.

Many companies in developing countries have a very detailed reporting system going down to the level of a single product, a single supplier, a single day. However, these reports – which are normally provided to the General Manager – should not be used by them at all. They are too detailed and, thus, tend to obscure the true picture. He must be alerted to unusual happenings, disturbing financial data and other irregularities.

The first level is the annual budget of the company which is really a business plan. The budget allocates amounts of money to every activity and/or department of the firm.

The second tier of financial audit and control is when the finance department is able to produce pro forma financial statements monthly.

These financial statements, however inaccurate, provide a better sense of the dynamics of the operation and should be constructed on the basis of Western Accounting Principles.

The Manager should have access to continuously updated statements of income, cash flow, and a balance sheet. The most important statement is that of the cash flow. The manager should be able to know, at each and every stage, what his real cash situation is – as opposed to the theoretical cash situation which includes accounts payable and account receivable in the form of expenses and income.

The presentation to the Board an annual plan of sales and marketing including: market penetration targets, profiles of potential social and economic categories of clients, sales promotion methods, advertising strategic investor also implements these plans or supervises their implementation.

This strategic investor is usually possessed of a brand name recognized in many countries. It is the market leaders in certain territories. It has been providing goods and services to users for a long period of time, reliably. This is an important asset, which, if properly used, can attract users. The enhancement of the brand name, its recognition and market awareness, market penetration, co-branding, collaboration with other suppliers – are all the responsibilities of the strategic investor.

Key Result Areas (KRAs) of Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for MBA MB0036 Assignment

It is the question – “If you are made the CFO (Chief Financial Officer) of a Company what would you consider to be the KRAs (Key Result Areas) of your job?” It is the next solved assignment question of SMU MBA MB0036 of Strategic Management & Business Policy. You should take a look of List and explain the objectives of a Bankruptcy Law and A Business Continuity Plan is a Disaster Management Plan.

The CFO (Chief Financial Officer) is fervently hated by the workers. He is thoroughly despised by other managers, mostly for scrutinizing their expense accounts. He is dreaded by the owners of the firm because his powers that often outweigh theirs. Shareholders hold him responsible I annual meetings.

The job of the Chief Financial Officer is composed of many elements here is a universal job description which is common throughout the West.

The Chief Financial Officer is subordinated to the Chief Executive Officer, answers to him and regularly reports to him.

To regulate, supervise and implement a timely, full and accurate set of accounting books of the firm reflecting all its activities in a manner commensurate with the relevant legislation and regulation in the territories of operation of the firm and subject to internal guidelines set from time to time by the Board of Directors of the firm.

To implement continuous financial audit and control systems to monitor the performance of the firm, its flow of funds, the adherence to the budget, the expenditures, the income, the cost of sales and other budgetary items.

To timely, regularly and duly prepare and present to the Board of Directors financial statements and reports as required by all pertinent laws and regulations in the territories of the operations of the firm and as deemed necessary and demanded from time to time by the Board of Directors of the Firm.

To comply with all reporting, accounting and audit requirements imposed by the capital markets or regulatory bodies of capital markets in which the securities of the firm are traded or are about to be traded or otherwise listed.

To prepare and present for the approval of the Board of Directors an annual budget, other budgets, financial plans, business plans feasibility studies, investment memoranda and all other financial and business documents as may be required from time to time by the Board of Directors of firm.

To maintain a working relationship and to develop additional relationships with banks, financial institutions and capital markets with the aim of securing the funds necessary for the operations of the firm, the attainment of its development plans and its investments.

To alert the Board of Directors and to warn it regarding any irregularity, lack of compliance, lack of adherence, lacunas and problems whether actual or potential concerning the financial systems, the financial operations, the financing plans, the accounting, the audits, the budgets and any other matter of a financial nature or which could or does have a financial implication.

To collaborate and co-ordinate the activities of outside suppliers of financial services hired or contracted by the firm, including accounts, auditors, financial consultants, underwriters and brokers, the banking system and other financial venues.

List and Explain the Objectives of a Bankruptcy Law for MB0036 of SMU MBA Assignment

It is the solved assignment of – “List and explain the objectives of a Bankruptcy Law.” It is the sequence of MB0036 Strategic Management & Business Policy MBA assignments of SMU. You should read these also - A Business Continuity Plan is a Disaster Management Plan and method and elements of a Sales projection.

The USA had many versions of Bankruptcy laws. There was the 1938 Bankruptcy Act, which was followed by amended versions in 1978, 1984 and, lately, in 1994.

Each State has modified the Federal Law to fit its special, local conditions.

Still, a few things – the spirit of the law and its philosophy are common to all the versions. Arguably, the most famous procure is named after the chapter in the law in which it is described, Chapter 11. Following is a brief discussion of chapter 11 intended to demonstrate this spirit and this philosophy.

This chapter allows for a mechanism called “reorganization”. It must be approved by two thirds of all classes of creditors and then, again, it could be voluntary or involuntary.

Chapter 7 (1978 Act) – Liquidation:

A District Court appoints an “interim trustee” with broad powers. Such a trustee can also be appointed at the request of the creditors and by them.

Chapter 11 – Reorganization:

Unless he court rules otherwise, the debtor remains in possession and in control of the business and the debtor and the creditors are allowed to work together flexibly. They are encouraged to reach a settlement by compromise and agreement rather than by court adjudication.

Chapter 10:

In short a legal hybrid, the offspring of chapters 7 and 11:

It allows for reorganization under a court appointed independent manager (trustee) who is responsible mainly for the filling of reorganization plans with the court – and for verifying strict adherence to them by both debtor and creditors.

Despite its clarity and business orientation, many countries found it difficult to adapt to the pragmatic, non sentimental approach which led to the virtual elimination of the absolute priority rule.

A Business Continuity Plan is a Disaster Management Plan for SMU MB0036 Assignment

The assignment question is – “A Business Continuity Plan is a Disaster Management Plan. Discuss this statement, explaining how such a plan could be useful for a business affected by recession.” It is a MBA assignment question of Strategic Management & Business Policy. You can see some more solved assignment questions of SMU MBA MB0036 - method and elements of a Sales projection and types of capital needed for a start-up Company.

The Business Continuity Guideline is comprised of two sections: (1) the planning process and (2) successful implementation and maintenance.

It is essential that senior leadership of the organization sponsors and takes responsibility for creating, maintaining, testing, and implementing a comprehensive Business Continuity Plan (BCP). This will insure that management and staff at all levels within the organization understands that the BCP is a critical top management priority.

Such resources can include personnel, technology hardware and software, specialized equipment, general office supplies, facility/office space and critical and vital business records. Identifying, backing-up, and storing critical and vital business records in a safe and accessible location are essential prerequisites for an effective BCP. The Risk Assessment and BIA provide the foundation on which the organization’s BCP will rest, as strategies will be formulated and plans will be developed to meet the needs identified in them.

It is necessary that an appropriate administrative structure be put in place to effectively deal with crisis management. Clear definitions must exist for a management structure, authority for decisions, and responsibility for implementation. An organization should have a Crisis Management Team to lead incident/event response. The Team should be comprised of such functions as human resource, information technology, facilities, security, legal, communications/media relations, manufacturing, warehousing and other business critical support functions, with all under the clear direction of senior management or its representatives.

The Crisis Management Team may be supported by as many Response Teams as appropriate taking into account such factors as organization size and type, number of employees, location, etc. Response Teams should develop Response Plans to address various aspects of potential crises, such as damage assessment, site restoration, payroll, human resources, information technology, and administrative support, Response Plans should be consistent with and included within the overall BCP. Individuals should be recruited for membership on Response Teams based upon their skills, level of commitment, and vested interest.

Method and Elements of a Sales Projection for MB0036 SMU MBA Assignment

This is the solved assignment of – “You are the Marketing Head of a multi product marketing company for consumer goods in South India. Explain the method and elements of a Sales projection for the following budget year.” The solved MBA assignment question is written for Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) MB0036 of Strategic Management & Business Policy. There are already some assignments of MB0036 such as main features of a Business Plan for a Company and types of capital needed for a start-up Company.

Present an estimate of how many people you expect will purchase your product or service. Your estimate should be based on the size of your market, the characteristics of your customers and the share of the market you will gain over your competition. Project how many unites you will sell at a specified price over several years. The initial year should be broken down in monthly or quarterly increments. Account for initial presentation and market penetration of your product and any seasonal variations in sales, if appropriate.

Describe the amount and types of financing you are seeking for your business. Are you looking for debt from a lender or equity from an investor? Refer to you start up budget and cash flow statement presented earlier. Discuss how and when you will draw on these funds and how they will affect the bottom line. Also describe any commitments or investments that you may have already secured.

If you are seeking investors, such as venture capitalists, describe what they will receive in return for their capital. What are the repayment period and the expected return on investment? Also discuss the nature of their ownership share and how it may change with future investments. Equity investors are looking for rates of return higher than rates offered by banks or other business lenders. The level of risk in your business and industry will help to determine the actual market rate, as will the availability of equity dollars.

Be prepared to negotiate. And make sure you research the investment market carefully; several socially minded investment pools exist and more are in development.

Types of Capital Needed for a Start-Up Company for MB0036 MBA Assignment

It is the solved assignment of – “What are the three types of capital needed for a start-up Company?” I have already shared some SMU MBA assignments from Strategic Management & Business Policy (MB0036) for you such as features of a Business Plan for a Company, 4 Main Areas of Strategic Alliances and implementation of the strategy by CEO of a company.

Financial feasibility of your planned venture provides several financial reports and statements to document why your business will be a viable enterprise and a sound investment. There are three types of capital needed for a start-up company:

Start-up Budget:

Describe the initial expenses you will incur to get your business sup and running. Some items you might include in your start-up budget research and product design and development expenses, legal incorporation and licensing expenses, facility purchase or rental, equipment and vehicle purchase or rental, and initial material or supply purchase. You can use Worksheet B as a sample format for preparing your start-up budget.

Cash Flow Projection:

This statement presents a month-to-month schedule of the estimated cash inflows and outflows of your business for the first year. This schedule should indicate how much money your business will have or need and when you will need it. You should describe your sources of income and capital detailing your projected sales revenues and indicating your own or investor equity contribution, lenders, investors and other sources of capital. Itemize your projected expenses, distinguishing between the costs of goods sold, overhead expenses.

Income Statement:

Prepare of multiyear statement projected revenues, expenses, capital expenditures and cost of goods sold. If you make assumptions about the growth of your business, provide supporting documentation such as growth patterns of similar companies or studies that forecast an industry-wide growth rate. This statement should indicate to the reader of potential of your business to generate cash and its profitability over time. For an existing business, also submit an income statement to determine whether your business can support the additional debt you are requesting.

Features of a Business Plan for a Company with Production and Marketing Operations for MB0036 Assignment

This is the solved assignment of SMU MBA for Strategic Management & Business Policy. The question is – “Explain the main features of a Business Plan for a Company with production and marketing operations.” You can view implementation of the strategy by CEO of a company.

There are some examples of a business plan for a company with production and marketing operations:

Revenue Generation:

Your organization may hope to create a business that will generate sufficient net income or profit to finance other programs, activities or services provided by your organization.

Employment Creation:

A new business venture may create job opportunities for community residents or the constituency served by your organization.

Neighborhood Development Strategy:

A new business venture might serve as an anchor to a deteriorating neighborhood commercial area, attract additional business to the area and fill a gap in existing retail services.

Establish Goals:

Once you have identified goals for a new business venture, the next step in the business planning process is to identify and select the right business. Many organizations may find themselves starting at this point in the process. Business opportunities may have been dropped at your doorstep.

Local Market Study:

Whether your goal is to revitalize or fill space in a neighborhood commercial district or to rehabilitate vacant housing stock, you should conduct a local market study. A good market study will measure the level of existing goods and services provided in the area, and assess the capacity of the area to support existing and additional commercial or home-ownership activity.

Analysis of Local and Regional Industry Trends:

Another method of investigating potential business opportunities is to research local and regional business and industry trends. You may be able to identify which business or industrial sectors are growing or declining in your city, metropolitan area or region.

Internal Capacity:

The board, staff or membership of your organization may possess knowledge and skills in a particular business sector or industry.

Identify Business Opportunities:

You will also need to assess the customer or client base and determine whether its members will remain loyal to the business after it changes hands.

Implementation of the Strategy by CEO of a Company for SMU MBA MB0036 Assignment

Assignment question is – “You have taken over as CEO of a Company and have formulated a Strategy document to improve its share value by 50% in 3 years. What steps would you follow in the implementation of the Strategy?” We have already discussed about 4 Main Areas of Strategic Alliances for Strategic Management & Business Policy.

There are three alternatives to improve the sales performance of a business unit, to fill the gap between actual sales and targeted sales:

Intensive Growth

Integrative Growth

Diversification Growth

Intensive Growth:

It refers to the process of identifying opportunities to achieve further growth within the company’s current business. To achieve intensive growth, the management should first evaluate the available opportunities to improve the performance of its existing current business.

Integrative Growth:

It refers to the process of identifying opportunities to develop or acquire business that are related to the company’s current business. More often, the business process have to be integrated for linear growth in the profits. The corporate plan may be designed to undertake backward, forward or horizontal integration within the industry.

Alternatively, if this company acquires some of it’s most profitably operating intermediaries such as wholesalers or retailers, it is forward integration. If the company legally takes over or acquires the business of any of its leading competitors, it is called horizontal integration.

Diversification Growth:

It refers to the process of identifying opportunities to develop or acquire business that are not related to the company’s current business. This makes sense when such opportunities outside the present business are identified with attractive returns and that industry has business strengths to be successful. In most cases, this is planned with new products that have technological or marketing synergies with existing business to cater to a different group of customers.

A printing press might shift over to offset printing with computerized content generation to appeal to higher-end customers and also add new application areas – or even sell stationery. Alternatively, the company might choose new business that has nothing to do with the current technology, products or markets.

TAPARIA, CEO of Rajashree comments followed a value enhancement strategy to capture the market dominated by 43 grades, where ACC and L & T were market leaders. He noticed that nobody thought of the market-positioning slot superior grade 53, which, despite high rice, leads to overall savings due to less consumption. He expected that a shift from 43 to 53 grades would require convincing, for which channel support and its participation in communication were essential.

Thursday, November 4, 2010

Privacy Policy

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Monday, October 25, 2010

4 Main Areas of Strategic Alliances and Purposes of Strategic Alliances for MB0036 MBA Assignment

You have to write the assignment for “What are the four main areas of Strategic Alliances among two or more Companies? Explaining the purpose/s of each, briefly” question. It is the solved assignment for Strategic Management and Business Policy of MB0036 Sikkim Manipal University. I have already written an assignment of MBA MB0036 - Business Plan and its Purpose.

Strategic alliances constitute another viable alternative. Companies can develop alliances with the members of the strategic group and perform more effectively. These alliances may take in 4 main areas with their purposes:

a) Product and/or service alliance: Two or more companies may get together to synergies their operations, seeking alliance for their products and/or services. The product or service alliance may take any of the following forms:

A manufacturing company may grant license to another company to produce its products. The necessary market and product support, including technical know-how, is provided as part of the alliance. Coca-cola initially provided such support to Thums Up.

Two companies may jointly market their products which are complementary in nature. Chocolate companies more often tie up with toy companies. TV channels tie-up with Cricket boards to telecast entire series of cricket matches live.

Two companies, who come together in such an alliance, may produce a new product altogether. Sony Music created a retail corner for itself in the ice-cream parlours of Baskin-Robbins.

b) Promotional alliance: Two or more companies may come together to promote their products and services. A company may agree to carry out a promotion campaign during a given period for the products and/or services of another company. The Cricket Board may permit Coke’s products to be displayed during the cricket matches for a period of one year.

c) Logistic alliance: Here the focus is on developing or extending logistics support. One company extends logistics support for another company’s products and services. For example, the outlets of Pizza Hut, Kolkata entered into a logistic alliance with TDK Logistics Ltd., Hyderabad, to outsource the requirements of these outlets from more than 30 vendors all over India – for instance, meet and eggs from Hyderabad etc.

d) Pricing collaborations: Companies may join together for special pricing collaborations. It is customary to find that hardware and software companies in information technology sector offer each other price discounts. Companies should be very careful in selecting strategic partners. The strategy should be to select such a partner who has complementary strengths and who can offset the present weaknesses. The acid test of an alliance is greater sales at lesser cost. It is a common practice to develop organizational structures or modify them, if necessary, to support the alliance and make them successful.

Thursday, September 30, 2010

Database and Properties of Database for MI0025 SMU MBA Assignment

“Explain what is meant by Database? What are its properties?” it is the question of SMU MBA assignment for Database Management Systems. It is the solved assignment for students of Sikkim Manipal University with Information System (IS) specialty MBA MI0025. You can see Design Heuristics for Effective Modularity for MI0024 MBA assignment. You can suggest me some other questions also for the SMU MBA assignments.

Database is one of the many primary resources that are used by many people in an organization. DBMS and related software are the secondary resources. Administering this secondary resource is the responsibility of the Database Administrator.

He usually has the complete authority to access and monitor the database. He is responsible for creating, modifying, and maintaining the Database. He grants permission to the users of the database. He stores the profile of each user in the database. He defines procedures to recover the database resulting from failures due to human, natural or hardware courses.

System analyst collects the information regarding requirements of the end users and develops specifications for caned transactions that meet their requirements.

Application programmers implement specifications developed by the System Analysts in the form of programs, they are also responsible to test, debug, document and maintain these programs.

Tools are the third party optional software packages which are not available with the DBMS. They include packages for DB design, performance, monitoring, graphical interacts. In many cases independent software vendors develop and market these tools. They are called Tool Developers.

A DBMS is a complex set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. The four most common types of organizations are the hierarchical, network, relational and object models. A database query language and report writer allow users to interactively interrogate the database, analyze its data and update it according to the users privileges on data.

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Design Heuristics for Effective Modularity from MI0024 MBA Assignment

“Summarize design heuristics for effective modularity.” The question of SMU MBA assignment for Software Engineering (MI0024) has to solve students. It is one more solved assignment for students of Sikkim Manipal University with Information System (IS) specialty MBA MI0024. There are already some assignments of MBA MI0024 for students of SMU - Formal technical reviews, COCOMOL model and Linear Sequential Model.

Once the program structure has been developed, effective modularity can be achieved by applying the design concepts introduced earlier in this chapter. The program structure can be manipulated according to the following set of heuristics:

Evaluate the “first iteration” of the program structure to reduce coupling and improve cohesion. Once the program structure has been developed, modules may be exploded or imploded with an eye toward improving module independence. An exploded module becomes two or more modules in the final program structure. An imploded module is the result of combining the processing implied by two or more modules.

Attempt to minimize structures with high fan-out; strive for fan-in as depth increases. The structure shown inside the cloud does not make effective use of factoring. All modules are “packed” below a single control module. In general, a more reasonable distribution of control is shown in the upper structure.

Keep the scope of effective a module within the scope of control of that module.

The scope of effect of module is defined as all other modules that are affected by a decision made in module. The scope of control of module is all modules are subordinate and ultimately subordinate to module; if module makes a decision that affects module we have a violation of this heuristic, because module lies outside the scope of control module.

Evaluate module interfaces to reduce complexity and redundancy and improve consistency. Module interface complexity is a prime cause of software errors. Interfaces should be designed to pass information simply and should be consistent unrelated data passed via an argument list or other technique is an indication of low cohesion.

Define modules whose function is predictable, but avoid modules that are overly restrictive. A module is predictable when it can be treated as a black box; that is, the same external data will be produced regardless of internal processing details. Modules that have internal “memory” can be unpredictable unless care is taken in their use.

Strive for “controlled entry” modules by avoiding “pathological connections.” This design heuristic warns against content coupling. Software is easier to understand and therefore easier to maintain when module interfaces are constrained and controlled.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Formal Technical Reviews for MI0024 MBA Assignment of SMU

“Explain the formal technical reviews.” It is the question of SMU MBA assignment for Software Engineering (MI0024). It is for students of Sikkim Manipal University with Information System (IS) specialty MBA MI0024. I have already written some assignments of MBA MI0024 for students of SMU - Earned value is a measure of progress, COCOMOL model and Linear Sequential Model.

A formal technical review is a software quality assurance activity performed by software engineers (and others). The objectives of the FTR are (1) to uncover errors in function, logic, or implementation for any representation of the software; (2) to verify that the software under review meets its requirements; (3) to ensure that the software has been represented according to predefined standards; (4) to achieve software that is developed in a uniform manner; and (5) to make projects more manageable. In addition, the FTR serves as a training ground, enabling junior engineers to observe different approaches to software analysis, design, and implementation. The FTR also serves to promote backup and continuity because a number of people become familiar with parts of the software that they may not have otherwise seen.

(1) The review Meeting:

The review meeting is attended by the review leader, all reviewers, and the producer. One of the reviewers takes on the role of the recorder; that is, the individual who records (in writing) all important issues raised during the review. The FTR begins with an introduction of the agenda and a brief introduction by the producer.

(2) Review Reporting and Record Keeping:

The review summary report is a single page form (with possible attachments). It becomes part of the project historical record and may be distributed to the project leader and other interested parties.

(3) Review Guidelines:

Guidelines for the conduct of format technical reviews must be established in advance, distributed to all reviewers, agreed upon, and then followed. A Review that is uncontrolled can often be worse that no review at all.

Sunday, July 18, 2010

Explain Earned value is a Measure of Progress for Software Engineering Assignment of SMU MBA

“Earned value is a measure of progress. Explain this statement.” This is the question of this SMU MBA assignment for Software Engineering (MI0024). Students of Sikkim Manipal University with Information System (IS) specialty MBA MI0024 can write the assignment. There are some other Software Engineering assignments also of SMU MBA - COCOMOL model, Linear Sequential Model and 4GL Technologies.

Earned value analysis provides the project manager with an indication of progress, but an assessment of the information provided is somewhat subjective. It is reasonable to ask whether there is a quantitative technique for assessing progress as the software team progresses through the work tasks allocated to the project schedule. In fact, a technique for performing quantitative analysis of progress does exist. It is called earned value analysis (EVA).

The earned value system provides a common value scale for every (software project) task, regardless of the type of work being performed. The total hours to do the whole project are estimated, and every task is given an earned value based on its estimated percentage of the total.

Stated even more simply, earned value is a measure of progress. It enables us to assess the “percent of completeness” of a project using quantitative analysis rather than rely on a gut feeling. In fact, Fleming and Koppleman argue that earned value analysis “provides accurate and reliable readings of performance from as early as 15% into the project”.

To determine the earned value, the following steps are performed:

1. The budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) is determined for each work task represented in the schedule. The work of each software engineering task is planned.

2. The BCWS values for all work tasks are summed to derive the budget at completion,

BAC. Hence, BAC=_(BCWSk) for all tasks k

3. Next, the value for budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) is computed. The value for BCWP is the sum of the BCWS values for all work tasks that have actually been completed by a point in time on the project schedule.

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

COCOMOL Model of MI0024 Software Engineering for MBA Assignment

“Explain COCOMOL model.” You have to solve the question of SMU MBA MI0024 for Software Engineering. MBA students of Information System (IS) of Sikkim Manipal University MI0024 can write the assignment. I already have shared some other MI0024 MBA assignments also such as - Linear Sequential Model and 4GL Technologies.

In this classic book on “software engineering economics,” Barry Boehm [BOE81] introduced a hierarchy of software estimation models bearing the name COCOMO, for constructive cost model. The original COCOMO model became one of the most widely used and discussed software cost estimation models in the industry. It has evolved into a more comprehensive estimation model, called COCOMO II [BOE96, BOE00]. Like its predecessor, COCOMO II is actually a hierarchy of estimation models that address that following areas:

Application composition model: Used during the early stages of software engineering, when prototyping of user interfaces, consideration of software and system interaction, assessment of performance, and evaluation of technology maturity are paramount.

Early design stage model: Used once requirements have been stabilized and basic software architecture has been established.

Post-architecture-stage model: Used during the construction of the software.

The Software Project Plan is a relatively brief document that is addressed to a diverse audience. It must (1) communicate scope and resources to software management, technical staff, and the customer; (2) define risks and suggest risk aversion techniques; (3) define cost and schedule for management review; (4) provide an overall approach to software development for all people associated with the project; and (5) outline how quality will be ensured and change will be managed.

This is, the project team revisits the plan repeatedly – updating risks, estimates, schedules and related information – as the project proceeds and more is learned.

Similarly, the degree of detail contained within the schedule section may vary with the audience and formality of the plan. It is the important to note that the Software Project Plan is not a static document.

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

Linear Sequential Model in Software Engineering of MI0024 for SMU MBA Assignment

“Explain Linear Sequential Model.” It is the question of SMU MBA MI0024 for Software Engineering. Students of Information System (IS) of Sikkim Manipal University MBA MI0024 can write the assignment. There are some other MI0024 MBA assignments also such as - software process and different models and 4GL Technologies.

The linear sequential model suggests a systematic, sequential approach to software development. It begins at the system level and progress through analysis, design, coding, testing and support. Modeled after a conventional engineering cycle, the linear sequential model encompasses the following activities:

System/information engineering and modeling: Because software is always part of a larger system (or business), work begins by establishing requirements for all system elements and then allocating some subset of these requirements to software. This system view is essential when software must interact with other elements such as hardware, people and databases.

Software requirements analysis: The requirements gathering process is intensified and focused specifically on software. To understand the nature of the program(s) to be built, the software engineer (“analyst”) must understand the information domain for the software, as well as required function, behavior, performance and interface.

Design: Software design is actually a multistep process that focuses on four distinct attributes of a program: data structure, software architecture, interface representations and procedural detail. The design process translates requirements into a representation of the software that can be assessed for quality before coding begins.

Code generation: The design must be translated into a machine-readable form. The code generation step performs this task.

Testing: Once the code has been generated, program testing begins. The testing process focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring that all statements have been tested and on the functional externals, that is, conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce actual results that agree with the required results.

Support: Software will undoubtedly undergo change after it is delivered to the customer. Change will occur because errors have been encountered, because the software must be adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment or because the customer requires functional or performance enhancements.

The linear sequential model requires his and has difficult accommodating the natural uncertainty that exists at the beginning of many projects.

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

4GL Technologies for MBA Assignment of MI0024 Software Engineering

“What are 4GLs explain in brief.” The question has been taken from MI0024 SMU MBA of Software Engineering. It is the question of Information System (IS) for Sikkim Manipal University MBA MI0024. I have already shared software process and different models also for MI0024 assignment.

For small applications, it may be possible to move directly from the requirements gathering step to implementation using a nonprocedural fourth generation language (4GL), or a model composed of a network of graphical icons.

However, for larger efforts, it is necessary to develop a design strategy for the system, even if a 4GL is to be used. The use of 4GT without design (for large projects) will cause the same difficulties (poor quality, poor maintainability, poor customer acceptance) that have been encountered when developing software using conventional approaches.

Implementation using a 4GL enables the software developer to represent desired results in a manner that leads to automatic generation of code to create those results. Obviously, a data structure with relevant information must exist, and be readily accessible by the 4GL. To transform a 4GT implementation into a product, the developer must conduct through testing, develop meaningful documentation, and perform all other solution integration activities that are required in other software engineering paradigms. In addition, the 4GT developed software must be built in a manner that enables maintenance to be performed expeditiously.

Like all software engineering paradigms, the 4GT model has advantages and disadvantages. Proponents claim dramatic reduction in software development time and greatly improved productivity for people who build software. Opponents claim that current 4GT tools are not all that much easier to use than programming languages, that the resultant sources code produced by such tools is ‘inefficient,” and that the maintainability of large software systems developed using 4GT is open to question. 4GT begins with a requirements gathering step.

Sunday, June 6, 2010

Software Process and Different Models Involved In This Process for MI0024 MBA Assignment

“Explain the software process and different models involved in this process.” This is MI0024 SMU MBA question assignment. The question has been taken from Software Engineering for Information System (IS) of SMU MBA MI0024. I have decided to write the assignment question after Branch and Bound Technique to solve an I.P.P. problem.

In the recent years, there has been a significant emphasis on “process maturity.” The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed a comprehensive model predicated on a set of software engineering capabilities that should be present as organizations reach different levels of process maturity. To determine an organization’s current state of process maturity, the SEI uses an assessment that results in a five point grading scheme.

To solve actual problems is an industry setting, a software engineer or a team of engineers must incorporate a development strategy that encompasses the process, methods, and tools layers. All software development can be characterized as a problem solving loop in which four distinct stages are encountered: status quo, problem definition, technical development and solution integration.

This problem solving loop applies to software engineering work at many different levels of resolution. It can be used at the macro level when the entire application is considered, at a mid-level when program components are being engineered and even at the line of code level.

Software Process Models:

The Linear Sequential Model: Sometimes called the classic life cycle or the waterfall model, the linear sequential model suggest a systematic, sequential approach to software development that begins at the system level and progress through analysis, design, coding, testing and support.

The Prototyping Model: Often, a customer defines a set of general objectives for software but does not identify detailed input, processing, or output requirements.

The Incremental Model: The incremental model combines elements of the linear sequential model with the iterative philosophy of prototyping.

The Spiral Model: The spiral model, originally proposed by Boehm [BOE88], is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model.

The RAD Model: Rapid application development (RAD) is an incremental software development process model that emphasizes an extremely short development cycle.

The intent of software engineering is to provide a framework for building software with higher quality. Software engineering is a discipline that integrates process, methods and tools for the development of computer software.

Thursday, May 27, 2010

Branch and Bound Technique to solve an I.P.P. Problem for MB0032 SMU MBA Assignment

“Describe the Branch and Bound Technique to solve an I.P.P. problem.” This is MB0032 SMU MBA question assignment. It is solved assignment of Operation Research chapter of Sikkim Manipal University. I already have shared North-West Corner rule, Matrix Minimum Method and Integer Programming Problem assignments also of SMU MBA MB0032.

Sometimes a few or all the variables of an IPP are constrained by their upper or lower bounds or by both. The most general technique for the solution of such constrained optimization problems is the branch and bound technique.

To explain how this partitioning helps, let us assume that there were no integer restrictions, and suppose that this then yields an optimal solution to LPP.

Then the solution having the larger value for z is clearly optimum for the given IPP. However, it usually happens that one of these problems has no optimal solution satisfying and thus some more computations are necessary. We now discuss step wise the algorithm that specifies how to apply the partitioning and in a systematic manner to finally arrive at an optimum solution.

We start an initial lower bound for z, say z at the first iteration which I less than or equal to the optimal value z, this lower bound may be taken as the starting Lj for some Xj.

In addition to the lower bound z, we also have a list of LPP’s differing only in the bounds. To start with the master list contains a single LPP consisting of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. We now discuss below, the step by step procedure that specifies how the partitioning 6 and 7 can be applied systematically to eventually get an optimum integer – valued solution.

Now, on terming we find that only two feasible integer solution namely 5 and 6 have been recorded. The best of these gives the optimum solution to the given IPP. Hence the optimum integer solution to the given IPP is:

Z0 = 55, X1 = 4, X2 = 3.

Sunday, May 16, 2010

North West Corner Rule for Finding the Initial Basic Feasible Solution in the Transportation Problem from MB0032 Assignment

“Describe the North-West Corner rule for finding the initial basic feasible solution in the transportation problem.” The question has been taken from MB0032 MBA assignment of SMU. This question has been taken from Operation Research chapter of Sikkim Manipal University. We already have discussed about MODI method, Matrix Minimum Method and Integer Programming Problem in this series.

North West Corner Rule:

Step 1: The first assignment is made in the cell occupying the upper left hand (North West) corner of the transportation table. The maximum feasible amount is allocated there, that is X11 = min (a1, b1).

So that either the capacity of origin O1 is used up or the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied or both. This value of X11 is entered in the upper left hand corner (Small Square) of cell (1, 1) in the transportation table.

Step 2: If b1 > a1 the capacity of origin O, is exhausted but the requirement at destination D1 is still not satisfied, so that at least one more other variable in the first column will have to take on a positive value. Move down vertically to the second row and make the second allocation of magnitude X21 = min (a2, b1 – x21) in the cell (2, 1). This either exhausts the capacity of origin O2 or satisfies the remaining demand at destination D1.

If a1 > b1 the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied but the capacity of origin O1 is not completely exhausted. Move to the right horizontally to the second column and make the second allocation of magnitude X12 = min (a1 – x11, b2) in the cell (1, 2). This either exhausts the remaining capacity of origin O1 or satisfies the demand at destination D2.

If b1 = a1, the origin capacity of O1 is completely exhausted as well as the requirement at destination is completely satisfied. There is a tie for second allocation; an arbitrary tie breaking choice is made. Make the second allocation of magnitude X12 = min (a1 – a1, b2) = 0 in the cell (1, 2) or X21 = min (a2, b1 – b2) = 0 in the cell (2, 1).

Step 3: Start from the new north west corner of the transportation table satisfying destination requirements and exhausting the origin capacities one at a time, move down towards the lower right corner of the transportation table until all the rim requirements are satisfied.

Sunday, May 2, 2010

Transportation Problem and MODI Method of Solving Transportation Problem From MB0032 Assignment

The question is – “What do you understand by the transportation problem? What is the basic assumption behind the transportation problem? Describe the MODI method of solving transportation problem.” It has been taken from MB0032 assignment of SMU MBA. It is the question of Operation Research book of Sikkim Manipal University. I am back with this question after the - Matrix Minimum Method, Integer Programming Problem and Penalty Cost Method or Big-M Method for Solving LPP.

Transportation Problem:

Here we study an important class of linear programs called the transportation model. This model studies the minimization of the cost of transporting a commodity from a number of sources to several destinations. The supply at each source and the demand at each destination are known.

The objective is to develop an integral transportation schedule that meets all demands from the inventory at a minimum total transportation cost.

Basic Assumption behind Transportation Problem:

Let us consider a T.P involving m-origins and n-destinations. Since the sum of origin capacities equals the sum of destination requirements, a feasible solution always exists. Any feasible solution satisfying m+n-1 of the m + n constraints is a redundant one and hence can be deleted. This also means that a feasible solution to a T.P can have at the most only m + n – 1 strictly positive components, otherwise the solution will degenerate.

It is always possible to assign an initial feasible solution to a T. P. in such a manner that the rim requirements are satisfied. This can be achieved either by inspection or by following some simple rules. We begin by imagining that the transportation table is blank i.e. initially all Xij = 0. The simplest procedures for initial allocation discussed in the following section.

MODI Method of Solving Transportation Problem:

The first approximation to (2) is always integral and therefore always a feasible solution. Rather than determining a first approximation by a direct application of the simplex method it is more efficient to work with the table given below called the transportation table. The transportation algorithm is the simplex specialized to the format of table it involves:

a) Finding an integral basic feasible solution
b) Testing the solution for optimality
c) Improving the solution, when it is not optimal
d) Repeating steps (1) and (2) until the optimal solution is obtained

The solution of T.P. is obtained in two stages. In the first stage we find basic feasible solution by any one of the following methods a) North-west corner rale b) Matrix Minima method or least cost method c) Vogel’s approximation method. In the second stage we test the B.Fs for its optimality either by MODI metod or by stepping stone method.

Sunday, April 18, 2010

Integer Programming Problem and Gomory’s All-I.P.P. Method for Solving the I.P.P. Problem from MB0032 MBA Assignment

This is the most probable assignment question of Operation Research for MB0032 SMU MBA. The question is “What do you understand by the Integer Programming Problem? Describe the Gomory’s All-I.P.P. method for solving the I.P.P. problem.” You already have taken many solved assignments from SMU MBA MB002 such as - classification of Operations Research models, Matrix Minimum Method and Penalty Cost Method or Big-M Method for Solving LPP.

An integer programming problem can be described as follows:

Determine the value of unknowns X1, X2, …, Xn

So as to optimize z = C1X1 + C2X2 + … CnXn

Subject to the constraints

ai1 X1 + ai2 X2 + … + ain Xn = bi, i = 1,2, …, m

and xj ≥ 0 j = 1, 2, …, n

where xj being an integral value for j = 1, 2, …, k ≤ n.

If all the variables are constrained to take only integral value i.e. k = n, it is called an all (or pure) integer programming problem. In case only some of the variables are restricted to take integral value of rest (n – k) variables are free to take any one negative values, then the problem is known as mixed integer programming problem.

Gomory’s All – IPP Method:

An optimum solution to an I. P. P. is first obtained by using simplex method ignoring the restriction of integral values. In the optimum solution if all the variables have integer values, the current solution will be the desired optimum integer solution. Otherwise the given IPP is modified by inserting a new constraint called Gomory’s or secondary constraint which represents necessary condition for integrability and eliminates some non integer solution without losing any integral solution.

After adding the secondary constraint, the problem is then solved by dual simplex method to get an optimum integral solution. If all the values of the variables in this solution are integers, an optimum inter-solution is obtained, otherwise another new constrained is added to the modified L P P and the procedure is repeated.

An optimum integer solution will be reached eventually after introducing enough new constraints to eliminate all the superior non integer solutions. The construction of additional constraints, called secondary or Gomory’s constraints is so very important that it needs special attention.

Sunday, April 11, 2010

Matrix Minimum Method and The Initial Basic Feasible Solution In The Transportation Problem for MB0032 Assignment

This question comes from Operation Research assignment of MB0032 for SMU MBA. The question is “Describe the Matrix Minimum method of finding the initial basic feasible solution in the transportation problem.” From the SMU MBA MB002 assignment I already have shared about classification of Operations Research models and Penalty Cost Method or Big-M Method for Solving LPP.

Matrix Minimum Method:

Step 1: Determine the smallest cost in the cost matrix of the transportation table. Let it be Cij, Allocate Xij = min (aj, bj) in the cell (i, j).

Step 2: If Xij = aj cross off the ith row of the transportation table and decrease bj by ai go to step 3.

If xij = bj cross off the ith column of the transportation table and decrease ai by bj go to step 3.

If Xij = ai = bj crosss off either the ith row or the ith column but not both.

Step 3: Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the resulting reduced transportation table until all the rim requirements are satisfied whenever the minimum cost is not unique make an arbitrary choice among the minima.

The Initial Basic Feasible Solution:

Let us consider a T.P involving m-origins and n-destinations. Since the sum of origin capacities equals the sum of destination requirements, a feasible solution always exists. Any feasible solution satisfying m+n -1 of the m+n constraints is a redundant one and hence can be deleted. This also means that a feasible solution to a T.P can have at the most only m + n -1 strictly positive component, otherwise the solution will degenerate.

It is always possible to assign an initial feasible solution to a T.P. in such a manner that the rim requirements are satisfied. This can be achieved either by inspection or by following some simple rules. We begin by imagining that the transportation table is blank i.e. initially all Xij = o. The simplest procedures for initial allocation discussed in the following section.